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China‘s parliament has passed new national security legislation for Hong Kong that critics warned would rob the territory of its autonomy.

The move sets the stage for the most radical change to the former British colony’s way of life since it returned to Chinese rule in 1997.

It pushes Beijing further along a collision course with the US, Britain and other Western governments, which have said it erodes the high degree of autonomy the global financial hub was granted at its 1997 handover.

Britain has said the security law would violate China’s international obligations and its handover agreement, which promised Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy for 50 years under a “one country, two systems” formula.

The US began eliminating Hong Kong’s special status under US law on Monday, halting defence exports and restricting the territory’s access to high technology products.

Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam, speaking at her regular weekly news conference, said it was not appropriate for her to comment on the legislation as the meeting in Beijing was still ongoing, but threw a jibe at Washington.

“No sort of sanctioning action will ever scare us,” Lam said.

A draft of the law is yet to be published.

Beijing said the law, which comes in response to last year’s often-violent pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong, aims to tackle subversion, terrorism, separatism and collusion with foreign forces.

This month, China’s official state agency Xinhua unveiled some of its provisions, including that it would supersede existing Hong Kong legislation and that the power of interpretation belongs to China’s parliament top committee.

Beijing is expected to set up a national security office in Hong Kong to “supervise, guide and support” the city government. Beijing could also exercise jurisdiction on certain cases.

Judges for security cases are expected to be appointed by the city’s chief executive. Senior judges now allocate rosters up through Hong Kong’s independent judicial system.

It is still unclear which specific activities are to be made illegal, how precisely they are defined or what punishment they carry.

The South China Morning Post (SCMP), quoting an unnamed source, said Xinhua will publish details of the law on Tuesday afternoon and that Hong Kong officials will gather at Beijing’s top representative office in the city later in the day for a meeting on the legislation.

Authorities in Beijing and Hong Kong have repeatedly said the legislation is aimed at a few “troublemakers” and will not affect rights and freedoms, nor investor interests.

The law comes into force as soon as it is gazetted in Hong Kong, which is seen as imminent.

Police have banned this year’s July 1 rally on the anniversary of the 1997 handover, citing coronavirus restrictions. It is unclear if attending the rally would constitute a national security crime if the law came into force by Wednesday.

The SCMP, citing “police insiders”, said about 4,000 officers will be on stand by on Wednesday to handle any unrest if people defy the ban.